Tuesday, August 19, 2014

Antedating "determinative"

The OED gives:

b. Gram. determinative adjective, determinative pronoun, etc. (see quots.); determinative compound = tatpurusha n.

1921   E. Sapir Lang. vi. 135   The words of the typical suffixing languages (Turkish, Eskimo, Nootka) are ‘determinative’ formations, each added element determining the form of the whole anew.
1924   H. E. Palmer Gram. Spoken Eng. ii. 24   To group with the pronouns all determinative adjectives..shortening the term to determinatives.
1933   L. Bloomfield Language xiv. 235   One can..distinguish..determinative (attributive or subordinative) compounds (Sanskrit tatpurusha).
1961   R. B. Long Sentence & its Parts 486   The, a, and every are exceptional among the determinative pronouns in requiring stated heads.
Today, I was reading Kellner's Historical outlines of English syntax from 1892 and came across the following on pp. 113–114 (emphasis added):

In Old English the possessive pronoun, or, as the French say, "pronominal adjective," expresses only the conception of belonging and possession ; it is a real adjective, and does not convey, as at present, the idea of determination. If, therefore, Old English authors want to make such nouns determinative, they add the definite article : 
"hæleð min se leofa" (my dear warrior). —Elene, 511.
"ðu eart dohtor min seo dyreste" (thou art my dearest daughter). —Juliana, 193.
§179. In Middle English the possessive pronoun apparently has a determinative meaning (as in Modern English, Modern therefore its connection; German, and Modern French) with the definite article is made superfluous, while the indefinite article is quite impossible. Hence arises a certain embarrassment with regard to one case which the language cannot do without. 
Suppose we want to say "she is in a castle belonging to her," where it is of no importance what-ever, either to the speaker or hearer, to know whether "she" has got more than one castle how could the English of the Middle period put it? The French of the same age said still "un sien castel," but that was no longer possible in English.

§180. We should expect the genitive of the personal pronoun ("of me," &c., as in Modern German)—and there may have been a time when this use prevailed—but, so far as I know, the language decided in favour of the more complicated construction "of mine, of thine," &c.

This was, in all probability, brought about by the analogy of the very numerous cases in which the indeterminative noun connected with mine, &c., had a really partitive sense (cf. the examples below), and, further, by the remembrance of the old construction with the possessive pronoun.
And later:

Later on, the possessive pronoun apparently implies a determinative meaning (as in Modern German and Modern French) ; therefore its connection with the definite article is made superfluous, while the indefinite article is quite impossible. Instead of the old construction we find henceforth what may be termed the genitive pseudo-partitive. See above, 178–180.

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